Network systems architecture was considered as the methods or the layout technique which all the computers are connected to form the local area network. These computer network layout techniques or the method can be classified into two types. Such as,
- Peer-to-peer method
- Client server method
peer-to-peer network has no central server. Each workstation on the network shares its files equally with the others. There’s no central storage or authentication of users. Peer-to-peer networks should be installed in homes or in very small businesses where employees interact regularly. They are inexpensive to set up as this network doesn’t need any main server to work. But this type of network offers the service with poor security. Peer-to-peer networks are appropriate only for very small businesses and for home. A peer-to-peer network can support about ten client systems. Usually, peer-to-peer networks are composed of a collection of clients that run either Windows NT Workstation or Windows 98. Windows 3.11, Windows 95, and Windows 2000 Professional also support peer-to-peer networking.
The concept behind peer-to-peer networking is to share files, software and printers with many users and to reduce the unwanted cost. In this network, the client pcs will act as the server and the client system and each user will access other user’s system to get the required data. But in this network too users are allowed to control access to the resources on their own computers and can maintain the privacy. However, security becomes very risky in a peer-to-peer environment. There’s no central security or any way to control who shares what. Users are free to create any network share points on their computers. The only security on a peer-to-peer network is at the share level. When users create network shares, they may implement no security, which means that anyone can have full access to the share, or they may assign a password to the share. Depending on which networking platform the user use, a user may be able to assign one password to a share for read-only access and another password for full control over the share.
The main problem in this network is anyone can access the system when the password is known. Because the computer that contains the shared resources doesn’t check on who’s trying to access those resources. Any user can access them as long as the user knows the password. If someone happens to write down a password, anyone who finds that password can access the share.
Advantages of Peer to Peer
- Implementation cost is low
- Network will be speed when the number of client is low
- Easy to share the files, software and hardware
- Anybody can access the other system connected with the same network
- No need to use any separate server to store the data
Disadvantages of Peer to Peer
- Security is low as anyone can access the data when they get the password
- Limited number of systems can only be connected
- Only suitable for small business
- The speed will be depending on the number of connected systems
- It’s very difficult to back up a peer-to-peer network at every night
Client server method
There are an almost infinite variety of client/server networks, but all of them have a couple of things in common. For one thing, all have centralized security databases that control access to shared resources on servers. Therefore, this network required a centralized server to connect all the client’s computers and hardware. In the world of Windows, the server usually runs NetWare, Windows NT, or one of the Windows 2000 Server products. The server contains a list of usernames and passwords. Users can’t log on to the network unless they supply valid usernames and passwords to the server. Once logged on, users may access only those resources that the network administrator allows them to access. Thus, client/server networks possess much more security than do peer-to-peer networks. As this network provide more facilities this type of connection will be suitable for large business and to connect more number of systems.
Client/server networks also tend to be much more stable. In a peer-to-peer network, certain shared resources reside on each user’s machine. On most client/server networks if a user ensues to erase a shared resource from the server, you can depend on the nightly backup as server client network provide easy way to take daily backup at night. The primary downside to a client/server network is its cost. Servers can become very expensive. For example, user could pay over $800 for a copy of Windows NT Server and five client licenses, and that price doesn’t even include the cost of the hardware, which must be more powerful than a standard workstation. Additionally, client/server networks require an employee to manage them. Unless users have someone in their office who’s trained in NetWare or Windows NT Server and in all of the issues that are involved in client/server networking, users will have to hire someone from the outside and the qualified networking professionals don’t come for cheap rate.
Advantages of client server network
- Security level is high when compare with peer to peer network
- Easy to setup a new client device with the server
- Can be used for large number of system
- Can use multiple accounts and passwords
- Network administrator can limit the access of the files to the client users
- All files are stored in a central location so access time is low
- Network peripherals are controlled centrally
- Easy to take backups daily
- Users can access shared data which is centrally controlled
Disadvantages of client server network
- Cost is high due the server
- Need a skilled person to manage
- Need to pay high salary for the skilled person
- Difficult for the small business due to the cost
- A specialist network operating system is needed
- If any part of the network fails a lot of disruption can occur